||[дек. 4, 2003|08:57 pm]
здесь. Конец первой и вся вторая глава. Не так интересно, как прошлый кусок, т.к. почти всё Продолжение книги Уилкинза, начатой |
посвящено перечислению и цитатам из древних источников и Библии.
Вторая глава в основном занимается метафорами и баснями как способами утаить прямой смысл. В третьей главе Уилкинз рассматривает способы тайной устной речи (искажение слов, придумывание новых итп.), а с четвёртой начинает изучение способов передать тайное сообщение на письме.
Verulam, которого Уилкинз особо выделяет в списке авторов нового времени, занимавшихся криптографией, и называет "наш английский Аристотель" — Фрэнсис Бэкон; "Verulam" — один из его псевдонимов.
В нескольких местах в квадратных скобках я привёл источники библейских цитат. Вообще говоря в книге Уилкинза на полях расположены сноски, которые я не транскрибирую; они всегда библиографические и указывают точный источник той или иной цитаты или аллюзии в тексте. Латинские цитаты Уилкинз и так переводит почти всегда (сразу после цитаты на латыни в тексте расположен её английский перевод), а библейские фразы он цитирует по-английски, так что я счёл полезным в этих случаях скопировать указания на источники из сносок в текст.
Such strange conceits, did those wilder nations entertaine, concerning this excellent invention. And doubtlesse it must needs argue a vast ability both of wit and memory, in that man, who did first confine all those different sounds of voyce, (which seeme to be almost of infinite variety) within the bounds of those few letters in the Alphabet.
The first inventor of this, was thought to be the Egyptian Mercury, who is therefore stiled the Messenger of the Gods. To which purpose the Poets have furnished him with wings for swiftnesse and dispatch in his errands. And because the Planet of that name, was thought to observe a more various & obscure revolution then any of the rest, therfore likewise did they attribute unto him, such secret and subtle motions, as might make him a trusty and private messenger, and so the fitter for that preferment, to which for this invention they had advanced him.
There is yet another way of discoursing, by signes and gestures. And though it be not so common in practice, as either of the other; yet in nature, perhaps it is before them both: since infants are able this way to expresse themselves, before they have the benefit of speech.
But now, because none of these wayes in ordinary use, are either so Secret or Swift, as some exigences would require; Therefore many of the Antients have busied themselves in a further inquiry how both these deficiencies may be remedied: as conceiving that such a discovery would be of excellent use, especially for some occasions that are incident to Statesmen and Souldiers.
That the ignorance of Secret and Swift conveyances, hath often proved fatall, not onely to the ruine of particular persons, but also of whole Armies and Kingdomes; may easily appeare to any one that is but little versed in story. And therefore the redressing of these may bee a subject worth our enquiry.
Amongst the Antients that have most laboured in these particulars, Aeneas, Cleomenes, and Democritus (as they are cited by Polybius) were for their inventions of this kind, more remarkeably eminent. And that Author himself, hath given us such an exact relation of the knowledge of antiquity in these things, that 'tis a wonder, these following ages should either take no more notice, or make no more use of it. Besides these, there is also Iulius Africanus, and Philo Mechanicus, two antient Grecians, who have likewise treated of the subject.
The Military significations in use amongst the Romans, are handled by Vegetius, and Frontinus.
Their notes of Secrecy, and Abbreviation in writing, are largely set downe by Valerius Probus, and Pet. Diaconus. There is likewise a volumne of these, set forth by Ianus Gruterus, which for their first invention are commonly ascribed unto Cicero and Seneca.
In latter times, these particulars have beene more fully hanlded, by the Abbot Tritemius, Theodorus Bibliander, Baptista Porta, Cardan, Subtilit. lib. 17. de Var. C. 12. 6. , Isaac Casaubon, Iohannes Walchius, Gustavus Selenus, Gerardus Vossius, Hermannus, Hugo, and divers others, in particular languages.
Amongst the rest, our English Aristotle, the learned Verulam, in that worke truly stiled the Advancement of Learning, hath briefly contracted the whole substance of what may be said in this subject. Where he refers it to the art of Grammar, noting it as a deficient part. And in reference to this is it handled by most of those Authors, who have treated of it.
That art, in its true latitude comprehending a treaty, concerning all the wayes of discourse, whether by speech, or by writing, or by gesture, together with the severall circumstances, pertaining to them. And so this subject belongs to the Mint of knowledge; Expressions being currant for conceits, as money is for valuations.
Now as it will concerne a man that deales in traficke, to understand the severall kinds of money, and that it may be framed of other materialls, besides silver and gold: So likewise do's it behove them, who professe the knowledge of nature or reason, rightly to apprehend the severall waies whereby they may be expressed.
So that besides the usefulnesse of this subject, for some speciall occasions, it doth also belong unto one of the liberall Arts.
From which considerations wee may infer, that these particulars are not so triviall, as prehaps otherwaies they would seeme, and that, there is sufficient motive to excite any industrious spirit, unto a further search after them.
In this following discourse, I shall enquire,
1 Concerning the Secrecy of meanes, whereby to communicate our thoughts.
2 Concerning their Swiftnesse, or quicke passing at any great distance.
3 How they may be both joyned together in the conveiance of any Message.
In the prosecution of which, I shall also mention (besides the true discoveries) most of those other wayes, whether Magicall, or Fabulous, that are received upon common tradition.
The conditions requisite to Secrecy, The use of it in the Matter of speech, either
/Fables of the Heathen.
\Parables of Scripture
To the exactnesse of Secrecy in any way of discourse, there are these two qualifications requisite.
1. That it be difficult to bee unfolded, if it should be doubted of, or examined.
2. That it be (if possible) altogether devoid of suspicion; for so far as it is liable to this, it may be said to come short in the very Nature of Secrecy; since what is once suspected, is exposed to the danger of examination, & in a ready way to be discovered: but if not, yet a man is more likely to be disappointed in his intentions, when his proceedings are mistrusted.
Both these conditions together are to bee found but in few of the following instances; only they are here specified, to shew what a man should aime at, in the inventions of this nature.
The art of secret information in the generall, as it includes all significatory signes, may be stiled Cryptomenysis, or private Intimations.
The particular wayes of discoursing, were before intimated to bee threefold.
1. By Speaking.
2. By Writing.
3. By signes or gestures.
According to which variety, there are also different wayes of Secrecy.
Cryptologia, or the Secrecy of speaking, may consist either,
1. In the matter.
2. In the words.
1. In the Matter: when the thing we would utter is so concealed under the expression of some other matter, that it is not of obvious conceit. To which purpose are the Metaphors, Allegories, and divers other Tropes of Oratory: whichs, so farre as they concerne the ornament of speech, doe properly belong to Rhetorick, but as they may be applied for the secrecy of speech, so are they reducible unto this part of Grammar.
To this likewise appertaines all that aenigmaticall learning, unto which not onely the learned heathen, but their Gods also were so much devoted, as appeares by the strange and frequent ambiguities of the Oracles, and Sybils. And those were counted the most profound Philosophers amongst them, who were best able for the invention of such affected obscurities.
Of this kind also were all those mysterious Fables, under which, the ancients did veile the secrets of their Religion and Philosophy, counting it as prophane thing to prostitute the hidden matters of either, unto vulgar apprehension. Quia sciunt inimicam esse naturae, apertam nudamque expositionem sui; quae, sicut vulgaribus hominum sensibus, intellectum sui, vario rerum tegmine operimentoque subtraxit, ita a prudentibus arcana sua voluit per fabulosa tractari, saith Macrobius. The Gods and nature wold not themselves have hidden so many things from us, if they had intended them for common understandings, or that others should treat of them, after an easie & perspicuous way: Hence was it that the learned men of former times were so generally inclined, to involve all their learning, in obscure & mysterious expressions. Thus did the Egyptian Priests, the Pythagoreans, Platonicks, & almost all other sects and professions.
And to this generall custome of those ages (we may guesse) the holy Ghost do's allude, in the frequent Parables, both of the old and new Testament. Parabola est fermo similitudinarius, qui aliud dicit, aliud significat, saith Aquinas. It is such a speech of similitude, as sayes one thing, and meanes another. The Disciples doe directly oppose it to plaine speaking. Behold now speakest thou plainly, and no Parables [John 16:29].
And elsewhere tis intimated, that our Saviour did use that manner of teaching for the Secrecy of it: That those proud and perverse auditors, who would not applie themselves to the obedience of his doctrine, might not so much as understand it. To whom it is not given to know the mysteries of the Kingdome of God, to them all things are done in Parables, that seeing they may see and not perceive, and hearing they may heare and not understand. [Matthew 13:10-11. Mark 4:11-12.]
The art of these was so to implie a secret argument, that the adversary might unawares be brought over, to an acknowledgement, and confession of the thing we would have. Thus did Nathan, unexpectedly discover to David, the cruelty and injustice of his proceedings in the case of Vriah. [2 Samuel 12] Thus did another Propher, make Ahab, condemne himselfe, for suffering the King of Syria to escape. [1 King. 20:39] And by this meanes did our Saviour in the Parable of the Vineyard, and the unjust husband-man, force the unbeleeving Jewes, to a secret acknowledgement, of those judgements, they had themselves deserved. [Matthew 21:33]
Of this nature was that argument of an antient Orator, who when the enemies had proposed peace, upon this condition, that the City should banish their teachers and Philosophers; He steps up and tells the people a tale, of certaine warres betwixt the woolves and the sheepe, and that the woolves promised to make a league, if they sheepe would put away their mastiffe Dogs. By this meanes better instructing them of the danger and madnesse there would be in yeelding to such a condition.
The Jewish Doctors doe generally in their Talmud, and all their other writings, accustome themselves to a Parabolicall way of teaching; and 'tis observed that many of those horrid fables, that are fathered upon them, doe arise from a misapprehension of them in this particular. Whilst others interpret that according to the letter, which they intended onely for the morall. At that which one Rabby relates concerning a Lion in the forrest of Elay, that at the distance of foure hundred leagues, did with his roaring, shake downe the walls of Rome, and make the women abortive. Wherein he did not affirme the existence of any such monster, but only intimate the terriblenesse and power of the divine Majestie. But this by the way.
By this Art, many men are able in their ordinary discourses, so secretly to convey their counsels, or reproofes, that none shall understand them, but those whom they concerne. And this way of teaching hath a great advantage above any other, by reason it hath much more power in exciting the fancy and affections. Plaine arguments, and morall precepts barely proposed, are more flat in their operation, not so lively and perswasive, as when they steale into a mans assent, under the covert of a parable.
To be expert in this particular is not in every mans power; like Poetrie, it requires such a naturall facultie as cannot be taught. But so farre as it falls under the rules and directions of Art, it belongs to the precepts of Oratory.
In the generall 'tis to be observed, that in these cases a man must be very carefull to make choyce of such a subject, as may beare in it, some proper analogie and resemblance to the chiefe businesse. And he must beforehand in his thoughts, so aptly contrive the severall parts of the similitude, that they may fitly answere unto those particular passages, which are of greatest consequence.