Anatoly Vorobey (avva) wrote,
Anatoly Vorobey
avva

книги: cold reading

Забавную очень книжку пролистал: “Red Hot Cold Readings” (авторы Herb Dewey и Thomas K. Seville).

Название требует пояснений. Для термина “cold reading” я не знаю хорошего русского перевода. “Cold reading” — это когда кто-то, ничего о вас, казалось бы, не зная, рассказывает вам об особенностях вашего характера, воспоминаниях вашего детства, отношениях с родными и друзьями, и так далее. По-настоящему хороший cold reading — искусство; в той или иной мере им обязаны владеть профессиональные гадалки, ясновидящие разного сорта, хироманты, астрологи, экстрасенсы. Некоторые из них используют свои познания в этой области сознательно; другие думают, что на самом деле “видят” или “читают на ладони” подробности жизни и характера клиента, на самом деле при этом бессознательно занимаясь cold reading. Кстати, “cold” подчёркивает именно аспект отсутствия предварительного знания о клиенте. Если “экстрасенс” той или иной разновидности знает о клиенте что-то заранее, и использует это знание, то это называют “hot reading”.

Как, собственно, оказывается возможным “cold reading”? Несколько разных методов объединяются вместе и дают в руках опытного специалиста нередко потрясающие результаты. Во-первых, наблюдательность и знание человеческой натуры помогает “чтецу” узнать очень многое о человеке по тому, как он одет, как ходит, сидит, реагирует, говорит. Во-вторых, наводящие вопросы и реакция клиента на них; причём опытный “чтец” умеет по реакции клиента на вопрос или начало утвердительного предложения, иногда реакции бессознательной, извлечь немало информации и успеть в случае чего переделать вопрос или утверждение на ходу так, что клиент и не понимает, что его “прощупали”. В-третьих, есть множество таких слов, фраз, описаний черт характера, которые кажутся на первый взгляд индивидуальными, но на самом деле подходят почти ко всем. Есть множество детских воспоминаний о событиях, которые в детстве случались практически со всеми, но клиент обычно это не знает, он “узнаёт” своё собственное воспоминание и поражается мастерству “чтеца”. То же самое касается отношений с другими людьми.

Кстати, у Чапека есть отличный рассказ “Ясновидец”, который как раз демонстрирует этот третий метод: описания людей и характеров, казалось бы, специфические, но на самом деле подходящие практически любому.

Настоящий специалист по cold reading использует все три вышеописанных метода вместе и параллельно, сочетая то, что он может узнать о клиенте по его внешнему виду, поведению и разговору с наводящими вопросами и общими утверждениями, верными почти для всех. И об этом — книга Дьюи и Севилла, своеобразный учебник cold reading. Они объясняют, на что в поведении и внешнем виде клиента следует обращать внимание, как строить беседу, как выдавать информацию небольшими порциями, следя за реакцией клиента и будучи готовым использовать эту реакцию для уточнения информации. Они цитируют немалое количество примерных монологов профессионального “чтеца”. Наконец, они обсуждают также третий аспект — факты, воспоминания, черты характера, которые можно “прочитать” почти у любого человека и не ошибиться. Эта часть книги мне показалась особенно интересной.

Ниже я копирую список таких удобных “фактов”, верных, по утверждению авторов, почти всегда и почти для всех (с точки зрения клиента — то есть утверждения о клиенте, с которыми он склонен согласиться). Конечно, некоторые из них очевидным образом относятся только к американской культуре, к примерному времени написания книги — начало 80-х — но многие другие выглядят более универсальными. Мне показались очень занимательными как сам список, так и попытка примерить его на себя и своих знакомых. Если кто-то хочет прочитать всю книгу, напишите, я её выложу (update: лежит здесь, 150kb, PDF).



Everybody has at one time or another had a premonition about something. Many have had a premonition about an impending disaster or death.

A great number of people have experienced an Out-of-the-Body experience. Astral travel, or at least know someone who has.

Women in shopping malls spend almost as much time studying other women as they do the window. Men likewise study other women.

About 80% of the women who are asked what animal they would turn into reply "Cat".

Most women feel they are intuitive and would like to develop that ability.

Purple and blue are significant colors for most women. They often have or are contemplating purchasing something of that color. Especially strong when they may be wearing brown.

Most people feel they are resourceful, and could make it by themselves if stranded on a tropical island.

Most women have had the thought what if I had twins.

Most people, especially females, had an imaginary playmate.

Nearly everyone has - perhaps during adolescence - thought about suicide.

People fear rejection, are afraid of saying or doing the wrong thing.

80% of all females wear or have worn gold chains.

Don't forget the scar on the left knee.

Tall thin people are likely to have back problems.

Light complexioned individuals with freckles, especially with blue eyes, sunburn rather than tan.

Most light-complexioned people have red highlights in their hair.

Young girls usually think about nursing and teaching.

Young boys think about becoming an animal trainer.

Nearly every adult has lost someone close to them, separated by death, divorce.

Mature women seem to like to visit flea markets, like handmade items rather than machine-made, may make things themselves, and spoil their grandchildren.

Older men dislike grocery shopping, fear being just a meal ticket.

It is common for people to agree that they had some difficulty relating to their father, especially during adolescence.

People avoid getting into things they don't understand.

Most have some difficulty dealing with authority.

78% of adults have aches or problems associated with their feet, more for women who wear high-heeled shoes.

When we were young, mothers tended to be open and treat us like little adults.

Were romantic, wrote prose or poetry of a romantic nature in high school.

Had great dream about what they would do after graduation that were not fulfilled.

Respond favorably to all Self-serving Bias statements.

Feel reassured and positive when told they have outgrown hurts, needs for or overcoming self-limiting behaviors.

Most people at one time or another in their life are told they have too many teeth in their mouth by their dentist.

Most women own lots of shoes - when they buy a new pair they seldom discard the old.

Most women are never totally pleased with the way their hair looks.

Most women at one time or another have owned a black nightgown.

Most women feel they are better kissers than their husbands or boy friends.

Most women remember having long hair as a child.

Most women like the smell of a pipe - and dislike cigars.

Most women dislike freckles.

Most women have had their ears pierced as teenagers.

Most men fear baldness.

Most men have a key that they have forgotten where it goes.

Most women have attempted writing poetry as a teen.

Most women will stop at a gas station for directions - men won't.

Most women get cold feet in bed.

Most people feel they have untapped artistic potential.

Most women dislike kissing a man with a mustache.

Most women - given a choice - would believe in palmistry over astrology, tarot cards, numerology, tea leaves.

Most people fear rejection.

Most women over 30 wear one-piece bathing suits.

Most people prefer gold jewelry to silver.

Most red-haired people get hay fever in the summer.

Most women like blue-eyed males over brown.

Most women pick out their husband's shirts and ties.

Most people have one leg longer than the other.

Most women have one breast larger than the other.

Most people feel they married too young.

Most men fear an IRS audit.

Most women prefer cats as pets.

Most men prefer large dogs as pets.

Most people have had at least one memorable sunburn.

Most women would not go hunting.

Most women feel they are not photogenic.

Most women enjoy reading books written by women.

Most-men enjoy reading books written by men.

Most women prefer baths.

Most men prefer showers.

Most people dislike Monday.

Most people love Friday.

Most people feel they are underpaid.

Most women after losing an earring hold onto the mate - sometimes for years.

Most women snore but don't believe they do.

Most women believe they were a man in previous life.

Most elderly women have an unopened box of lace handkerchiefs at home.

Most men have an unopened bottle of after shave in the bathroom.

Most women dislike men who wear white socks.

Most people have wondered what their purpose is in life.

Most men do not wear hats.

Most people have seriously thought of buying a waterbed.

Most older men are veterans.

Most people that sit up front at a performance are the easiest to get to volunteer.

Most people have post nasal drip first thing in the morning.

Most women say they dream in color.

Most women feel they need more iron in their diet.

Most men prefer women in dresses rather than skirts, blouses, or pant suits.

Most men prefer women with blond hair.

Most people believe that they have an identical twin somewhere in the world.

Most men believe they cannot be hypnotized.

Most people have suffered an unrequited love.

Most people remember the good old days - not the bad old days.

Most people have at least one broken watch at home.

Most women handle the family budget.

Most women see themselves as uncurable romantics.

Most women have had stronger attachments to their grandfather than to their grandmother.

Most older men have come close to dying once in their lives.

Most people, as children, believed they would not live beyond a certain age.

Most attractive women dislike being called cute.

Most women have an overweight girl friend.

Most women are better dancers than men.

Most tall women feel their feet are too big.

Most women have their mother's eyes.

Most people would say that spring is their favourite season.

Most men prefer king-size beds.

Most women at one time or another have been told they have bedroom eyes.

Most people over 40 that don't wear glasses wear contact lenses.

Most men like their present jobs.

Most men who smoke pipes are very deep thinkers.

Most women have looked at a Playboy Magazine.

Most women when they are being photographed feel they have a good side and a bad side.

Most people who smoke cigarettes have tried giving them up many times.

Most short people are outspoken.

Most people sleep on their sides, not on their backs.

Most people can wake up one minute before the alarm goes off.

Most older people dislike driving at night.

Most women as children kept a diary.

Most people have at least one ticklish spot on their body.

Most women that wear black are weight conscious.

Most women that wear hats consider themselves fashionable.

Most women do not send as many Christmas cards as they used to.



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