Anatoly Vorobey (avva) wrote,
Anatoly Vorobey
avva

подытожить маркса

Интересная попытка вкратце подытожить, чем занимался Маркс и в чем был неправ, от Брэда Делонга:

1. Understanding Karl Marx (тезисы)

Он выделяет Маркса-пророка, Маркса-активиста и Маркса-экономиста. Маркс-пророк интересен сейчас в основном историкам массовых культов. Маркс-активист исходил из нескольких фундаментальных идей о том, как будет развиваться капитализм, и все они оказались неверны. Маркс-экономист породил несколько важных идей (экономические циклы, важность индустриальной революции, экономическая история) и несколько плохих идей (в первую очередь трудовая теория стоимости).

2. Understanding Karl Marx (более подробное обсуждение)

Подробнее разбираются вышеупомянутые тезисы. Мне понравилась связь с Гегелем:



"I remember reading Capital for the first time. The first three sections of chapter 1 seemed (a) boring, and (b) tautological. For example:

"When, at the beginning of this chapter, we said in common parlance that a commodity is both a use value and an exchange value, we were, accurately speaking, wrong. A commodity is a use value or object of utility and a value. It manifests itself as this twofold thing that it is as soon as its value assumes an independent form – viz., the form of exchange value. It never assumes this form when isolated but only when placed in a value or exchange relation with another commodity of a different kind. When once we know this such a mode of expression does no harm..."

In my view, Marx has trapped himself. He has been primed to expect a deeper layer of real reality underneath mere appearances. And he has chosen the wrong model of the underlying real reality--the labor theory of value, which is simply not a very good model of the averages around which prices fluctuate. Socially-necessary labor power usually serves as an upper bound to value--if something sells for more, then a lot of people are going to start making more of them, and the prices at which it trades are going to fall. But lots of things sell for much less than the prices corresponding to their socially-necessary labor power lots of the time. And so Marx vanishes into the swamp which is the attempt to reconcile the labor theory of value with economic reality, and never comes out."
Tags: экономика
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