Anatoly Vorobey (avva) wrote,
Anatoly Vorobey
avva

американская поэзия (англ.)

Несколько статей (по-английски) о современном состоянии американской поэзии.
  • Точка зрения "всё плохо" адекватно выражена статьёй Dana Gioia (как её произносить-то, боже ж ты мой) Can Poetry Matter? (опубликована в Atlantic Monthly в 91-м году).
    Основная мысль статьи - несмотря на беспредентно большое количество поэтов и публикуемой поэзии, современная поэзия замкнулась в себе, образовала субкультуру, и в основном современных поэтов читают те же поэты. Поэзию почти перестали рецензировать в общей прессе итп. Вообще довольно толковая и живо написанная статья, заслуживает внимательного прочтения (в одном месте Gioia впадает в рефлексивный марксизм, но быстро из него выпадает, к счастью). Интересно проведено сравнение эры 40-х и 90-х с точки зрения профессий поэтов (тема академизации поэзии и поэтов, всплывающая также у других хороших авторов), типичных публикаций, рецензий итп.
    There have never before been so many new books of poetry published, so many anthologies or literary magazines. Never has it been so easy to earn a living as a poet. There are now several thousand college- level jobs in teaching creative writing, and many more at the primary and secondary levels. Congress has even instituted the position of poet laureate, as have twenty-five states.
    [...]
    The proliferation of new poetry and poetry programs is astounding by any historical measure. Just under a thousand new collections of verse are published each year, in addition to a myriad of new poems printed in magazines both small and large. No one knows how many poetry readings take place each year, but surely the total must run into the tens of thousands. [...] From such statistics an observer might easily conclude that we live in the golden age of American poetry.
    [...]
    Daily newspapers no longer review poetry. There is, in fact, little coverage of poetry or poets in the general press. From 1984 until this year the National Book Awards dropped poetry as a category. Leading critics rarely review it. In fact, virtually no one reviews it except other poets. [...] It seems, in short, as if the large audience that still exists for quality fiction hardly notices poetry. A reader familiar with the novels of Joyce Carol Oates, John Updike, or John Barth may not even recognize the names of Gwendolyn Brooks, Gary Snyder, and W. D. Snodgrass. [[действительно, я, например, не узнаю ни одного из этих трёх имён -- avva]].
    [...]
    What are the characteristics of a poetry-subculture publication? [...] Third, if it runs discursive prose, the essays and reviews are overwhelmingly positive. If it publishes an interview, the tone will be unabashedly reverent toward the author. For these journals critical prose exists not to provide a disinterested perspective on new books but to publicize them.
    [...]
    The poetry subculture no longer assumes that all published poems will be read. Like their colleagues in other academic departments, poetry professionals must publish, for purposes of both job security and career advancement. The more they publish, the faster they progress. If they do not publish, or wait too long, their economic futures are in grave jeopardy.
  • Точка зрения "всё хорошо" выражена Дональдом Холом. Основная мысль: в каждом поколении есть свои нытики по поводу "смерти поэзии" - и следующее поколение всегда показывает, что они неправы. Сегодня мы видим, как абсурдны были заявления Вилсона по этому поводу в 40-х; почему мы должны верить Эпштейну или Gioia в 90-х? В наше время публикуется и читается гораздо больше поэзии, чем когда-либо в прошлом, и этот мощный аргумент невозможно замаскировать пустой болтовнёй. Люди читают современную поэзию, пусть это и не нравится тем критикам, которые махнули на неё рукой, итп.
    When I was in school in the 1940s, there were few poetry readings; only Frost did many. If we consult biographies of Stevens and Williams, we understand that for them a poetry reading was an unusual event. In these decades, the magazine Poetry printed on its back cover Walt Whitman's claim that "to have great poets there must be great audiences too" but it seemed an idle notion at the time. Then readings picked up in the late 1950s, avalanched in the 1960s, and continue unabated in the 1990s.
    [...]
    n 1955 no one would have believed you if you had suggested that two or three decades hence the United States would support a bimonthly poetry tabloid with a circulation of twenty thousand available on newsstands coast to coast. Everybody complains about the American Poetry Review; nobody acknowledges how remarkable it is that it exists.
    [...]
    I believe in the quality of the best contemporary poetry; I believe that the best American poetry of our day makes a considerable literature. American Poetry after Lowell--an anthology of four hundred pages limited, say, to women and men born from the 1920s through the 1940s--would collect a large body of diverse, intelligent, beautiful, moving work that should endure. Mind you, it would limit itself to one-hundredth of one percent of the poems published. If you write about Poetry Now, you must acknowledge that most poetry is terrible--that most poetry of any moment is terrible. When, at any historical moment, you write an article claiming that poetry is now in terrible shape, you are always right. Therefore, you are always fatuous.
  • Точка зрения "все было плохо, но стало хорошо": новое предисловие Gioia к переизданию её книги "Can Poetry Matter", являющейся по сути расширенной версией пролинкованной выше статьи.
    Gioia пишет, что с 91-го года очень многое изменилось: главное, что поэзии удалось выйти из культурного гетто университетов и "войти в народ": есть множество разных не-академических фестивалей, чтений итп. Поэтому в будущее можно смотреть с оптимизмом. Я, признаться, не замечаю такого ренессанса, о котором она говорит, но я и не живу в Америке, так что мне трудно судить о её правоте.
    In the decade since Can Poetry Matter? was first published, the state of American poetry has changed radically. Although the university writing programs critiqued in the book remain largely the same, they have lost their monopoly on contemporary poetry because the literary culture around them has experienced a vast renewal by reconnecting poetry with a broader audience. There are now countless poetry festivals, book fairs, reading series, discussion groups, and conferences--based in the community rather than the academy. Although the state of poetry criticism and reviewing remains deplorable, it has been augmented by increased coverage in the general press. Many newspapers have begun printing poems and poetry columns. There are also numerous on-line columns and reviews.
    [...]
    A skeptical critic might justifiably claim that never has so much bad poetry been presented to so many people, but that observation misses the bigger and more important fact. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, a broad and diverse coalition of Americans has created a public space for poetry. This huge populist revival happened almost entirely outside the university. For the first time in half a century the academic poetry world is balanced by an equally large amount of activity in the general culture. The quality of these new enterprises is very uneven, but that is also true of most academic activity, and one can reasonably hope that competition between the two spheres will eventually make both stronger. The new populist revival is now transforming literary culture with such speed and reach that one wonders what the future will bring. It is a time of enthusiasm and experiment. No one today would dare claim that poetry is dead. The ancient unkillable phoenix has risen from the ashes and magnificently taken flight.
  • И статья Gioia, и статья Хола упоминают статью Джозефа Эпштейна в Commentary в 89-м году: "Who killed poetry?". Однако в сетевом доступе я этой статьи не нашёл.
  • В кучу ко всему остальному, и в подтверждение некоторых тезисов Gioia: небольшая статья о состоянии поэзии во Франции (на новом любопытном сайте Poetry International; спасибо LanguageHat за ссылку):
    About five hundred poetry magazines at present are published in France, some with hundreds of subscribers.
    [...]
    But French poetry also finds itself in a strange situation: there are many writers, but very few readers that aren’t poets themselves.
    Выделено мной.



В общем, мне ближе всего точка зрения первой статьи Gioia, но я признаю справедливость некоторых критических замечаний (уважаемого мной) Хола, и мне хотелось бы верить (но недостаточно для этого знаком с положением дел в последние годы) в то, что пишет Gioia в своей второй статье.
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